News Updates Sunday 21st Jan 2018 :
  • Welcome to International Press Corporation, world's leading publishers, We have served more than 10000+ authors
  • Articles are invited in engineering, science, technology, management, industrial engg, biotechnology etc.
  • Paper submission last date of Jan/Feb 2018 extended to 20 Jan 2018, Submit online or at
  • Our journals are indexed in University of Regensburg Germany, Google Scholar, Cross Reference data bases
  • Applications for reviewers are invited and can be sent directly to concerned editor's mail

Development of Eco-friendly Combination Tanning System for the Manufacture of Upper Leathers

Author : A.E. Musa and G.A. Gasmelseed

Pages : 9-15
Download PDF


More than 90% of global leather production is through chrome-tanning process currently. The conventional methods employed for tanning lead to significant material loss and serious environmental concern. The chromium salt tanning system, which is still the most popular leather tanning procedure, is under continuous pressure from environmental groups and international regulations due to pollution and toxicology reasons unfairly associating the chromium (III) commonly used with hazardous chromium (VI). Among alternative tannages that are currently exploited, the vegetable tannins and oxazolidine combination tannage is one of the most promising options. In this study, combination tanning process based on garad–oxazolidine tannage for the production of upper leathers is presented. Garad powder (Acacia nilotica spp nilotica pods) has been utilized in the combination tanning system with oxazolidine. It has been observed that garad-oxazolidine combination tanning employing 20% garad powder and 4% oxazolidine provides a shrinkage temperature of 102oC. The characteristics of the leathers indicate that the garad-oxazolidine combination system provides leathers with good organoleptic properties and comparable strength properties. The leathers have been further characterized for chemical analysis. The manufacture of upper leathers using combination of garad and oxazolidine appears to be promising.

Keywords: Oxazolidine, Garad powder, Acacia nilotica spp nilotica pods, Upper leather, Combination tanning


Article published in International Journal of  Advance Industrial  Engineering, Vol.1,No.1 (March- 2013)



Call for Papers
  1. IJCET- Jan/Feb-2018 Issue

    Submission Last Date extended to
    20 Jan 2018
  2. IJTT-March-2018
  3. IJAIE-March-2018
  4. IJCSB-March-2018
  • Inpressco Google Scholar
  • Inpressco Science Central
  • Inpressco Global impact factor
  • Inpressco aap

International Press corporation is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial NoDerivs 3.0 Unported License
©2010-2018 INPRESSCO® All Rights Reserved