CO2 Capture through Different Chemical Techniques: A Review
Pages : 2025-2029
Currently 90% of the world’s primary energy requirement is supplied by fossil fuels, causing rising emissions of greenhouse gases (GHGs) and related concerns over global warming and climate change. CO2 is by far the most important of the GHGs, being responsible for about 64% of the enhanced greenhouse effect. As a result of anthropogenic CO2 emissions, atmospheric concentrations have risen by 30% from pre-industrial levels of 280 ppm to 360 ppm today, primarily as a consequence of fossil-fuel use. In the United States, energy related CO2 emissions accounted for 98% of the total emissions in 2007 with electricity generation accounting for 40% of the total. This is really alarming and if the trend is continued the rise in the average temperature of globe may go to the extent that glaciers may melt down and sea level will be raised tremendously threatening the very existence of many countries in the world. Above situation demands immediate necessary measures so that biotic life can be kept alive on earth. Greenhouse gas mitigation technologies have assumed growing importance. Carbon dioxide emissions mostly given to rise by the utilization of fossil fuels in various industries and electricity generation can be captured by various techniques. Of these different technologies for CO2 capture, chemical absorption is the technology that is closest to commercialization now. Lot of research work is being carried out upon this. In India we are also dependent upon the utilization of fossil fuels in our industries and thermal electricity plants. We can no longer ignore the free passage to CO2 generated in our industries and thermal power plants to atmosphere, when having already witnessed quite recently some environmental catastrophes in form of floods, hurricanes, draughts etc. The CO2 capturing techniques need to be implemented now practically. Engineers and technologists are for fronted with the challenge of devising such economical techniques. This paper gives a detailed review of CO2 emission mitigation by utilizing different chemical techniques.
Keywords: CO2, Capture, Global warming, Absorption
Article published in International Journal of Current Engineering and Technology, Vol.3,No.5(Dec- 2013)